Babachenko Oleksandr Ivanovych, Dr. Sci. (Engin.), Senior Research Scientist, Director, Iron and Steel Institute of Z. I. Nekrasov National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Academican Starodubova square, 1, Dnipro, Ukraine, 49107. ORCID: 0000-0003-4710-0343. E-mail:

Tuboltsev Leonid Gryhorovych, Ph.D. (Engin.), Senior Researcher, Honored Worker of Industry of Ukraine, Head of Department, Iron and Steel Institute of Z. I. Nekrasov National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Academican Starodubova square, 1, Dnipro, Ukraine, 49107. ORCID 0000-0001-9540-3037

Merkulov Oleksii Yevhenovych, Dr. Sci., (Engin.), Senior Research Scientist, Director for Research, Iron and Steel Institute of Z. I. Nekrasov National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Academican Starodubova square, 1, Dnipro, Ukraine, 49107. ORCID 0000-0002-7867-0659


Summary. The article considers the possibilities of using decarbonization technologies in the production of steel products. The world experience of using advanced technologies is generalized and the possibilities of their application in metallurgical production are presented, taking into account the emissions of carbon dioxide responsible for the greenhouse effect and global warming of the Earth. The directions of research projects in the metallurgical industry, the results and the conclusions that follow from them are presented. Possibilities of application of decarbonization technologies in the process of preparation of charge materials, production of cast iron and steel are shown. It is noted that the trend of decarbonization of steel significantly changes traditional metallurgy. At the same time, the possibilities of modern technologies of metal production do not allow to significantly abandon the use of natural gas and carbon (coal and coke) as a reducing agent and energy source in metallurgical production processes. Possibilities of modern and perspective metallurgical processes concerning production of products with the minimum carbon trace are shown. The problems facing the metallurgy of Ukraine to reduce СО2 emissions and the introduction of technologies for decarbonization of metal production are highlighted. It is shown that for the implementation of steel decarbonization processes it is necessary to take into account the following: the need for structural restructuring of the metallurgical industry; the need for radical modernization of the metallurgical industry through the introduction of fundamentally new energy-saving production technologies; limiting inefficient exports of raw materials and semi-finished products; introduction of “green” steel production technologies; strengthening the role of research in the production of metallurgical products with low carbon footprint; strengthening the interaction of science, enterprises and the state in the implementation of global projects for the production of low-carbon metallurgical products.

Keywords: metallurgical production, steel decarbonization, technologies, cast iron, steel, rolled metal.

For citation: Babachenko O.I., Tuboltsev L.G. Merkulov O.Ye. Perspektyvy dekarbonizatsiyi metalurhiynykh tekhnolohiy [Prospects for decarbonization of metallurgical technologies]. Fundamental’nye i prikladnye problemy černoj metallurgii. [Fundamental and applied problems of ferrous metallurgy], 2021, 35, 4-33. (In English, In Ukrainian).

DOI: 10.52150/2522-9117-2021-35-4-33


  1. Ukraina obyazalas’ otkazat’sya ot uglya k 2040 godu [Ukraine pledged to phase out coal by 2040]. Retrieved from
  2. Powering a climate-neutral Retrieved from
  3. 2020 Tied for Warmest Year on Record, NASA Analysis Shows. Retrieved from
  4. Iron and Steel Technology Roadmap. Retrieved from
  5. Carbon Border Adjustment Mechanism. Retrieved from]
  6. Naiposhyrenishoiu tekhnolohiieiu vyhotovlennia stali ye Bf-Bof Route. : Retrieved from URL
  7. The most common steel making technology is the Bf-Bof Route. Retrieved from
  8. Krasavtsev N.I. (1961). Nekotorye teoreticheskie voprosy, svyazannye s vduvaniem v domennuyu pech’ vosstanovitel’nyh gazov [Some theoretical issues related to the injection into the blast furnace of reducing gases]. Izv. VUZov. Chernaya metallurgiya [Izvestiya. Ferrous metallurgy], 1961, 112, 31-39. [In Russian].
  9. Best Available Techniques (BAT) Reference Document for Iron and Steel Production. (2010). Industrial Emissions Directive 2010/75/EU Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control. 2013. Retrieved from
  10. Jan van der, Louwerse G., Sert D.D., Hirsch A., Eklund N., Pettersson M. Top gas recycling blast furnace developments for ‘green’ and sustainable ironmaking. Ironmaking & Steelmaking. 2013. 40 (7). 483-489.
  11. Smelting reduction. Retrieved from
  12. Steelmakers drawn to Iberian promise of green hydrogen for DRI projects. Retrieved from
  13. The HISARNA Process. Retrieved from
  14. Direct recovery process. Retrieved from
  15. Minenergo razrabotalo tri dokumenta dlya podgotovki Vodorodnoj strategii Ukrainy [The Ministry of Energy has developed three documents for the preparation of the Hydrogen Strategy of Ukraine]. Retrieved from
  16. Carbon capture and storage (CCS; CCU). Retrieved from
  17. Costs of Ukrainian industry for research activities. Retrieved from